班杜拉(1977)提出学业自我效能感是学生在学习过程中解决问题的能力以及对自己能够达到水平的预判,是对自身学习能力的自信程度。随后 Schunk(1989)认为学业自我效能感是学习者对自身完成学习任务的信心程度。国内学者梁宇颂(2000)认为学业自我效能感是评估学生学习活动、学习问题的可能完成度。边玉芳(2003)、曾兴华(2008)、谢慧(2010)、朱丽雅(2012)认为学业自我效能感是对学习者可以有效使用其技能或能力成功完成学习任务的信心程度的评估,是个体对自己在学习行为和学习成绩能力两方面能否控制的一种主观判断。通过查阅文献发现国内外对于学业自我效能感的定义大致一样,都紧紧围绕学者自身学习能力的自信程度。根据本研究的需要,学业自我效能感可以被定义为个人在学习情况下能否使用自身的能力或技术完成学习任务,以及在相关的学习活动中可能出现的完整性评价;是个人对自己学习能力的信任和判断。

学业自我效能是指个体对自身成功完成学业任务所具有能力的判断与自信。在Bandera (1983)的社会认知理论中,自我效能是一个很重要的概念。他认为,由于不同活动领域之间的差异性,所需要的能力、技能也千差万别。一个人在不同的领域中,其自我效能感是不同的。因此,并不存在一般的自我效能感。任何时候讨论自我效能感,都是指与特定领域相联系的自我效能感。同时,一个人对自身效能的判断决定其对目标与自我表现差距的反应:效能感高的人会进一步努力,效能感低的人会放弃努力.研究表明,高自我效能的个体,当感到个人表现与目标有差距时,会更加努力:而低自我效能者却会减少努力。就学生的学习动机而言,学生的自我效能感越高,其学习动机就越高;反之,则学习动机就越低。Bandura(1977)还提出了功效期待的概念。他认为,功效期待是对成功完成特定结果所需行为的自信。王凯荣等人(1999 )在对中学生自我效能感、归因与学习成绩关系进行研究时,即从学习能力和学习行为两方面对学生的自我效能进行考察。因此,我们可将学业自我效能感分为学习能力自我效能感和学习行为自我效能感两种。学习能力自我效能感是指个体对自己是否具有顺利完成学业、取得良好成绩和避免学业失败的能力的判断和自信。学习行为效能感是指个体对自己能否采取一定的学习方法达到学习目标的判断与自信。大量的实证研究表明,个体自我效能感的高低直接决定了其努力学习的可能性,是学习动机的一个重要影响因素。

学业自我效能量表(Academic Self-efficacy):该量表是参考Pintrich&DeGroot(1990)编制的学业自我效能问卷中的有关维度编制而成的,把学业自我效能分为学习能力自我效能感和学习行为自我效能感两个独立的维度.学习能力自我效能感是指个体对自己是否具有顺利完成学业、取得良好成绩和避免学业失败的学习能力的判断和自信。学习行为效能感是指个体对自己能否采取一定的学习方法达到学习目标的判断与自信。每个维度有11道测题,共22道测题。评分方法采用五分制,分数越高代表效能感越高。

学业自我效能感量表
(1=完全不符合;2=较不符合;3=不能确定;4=较符合;5=完全符合)

1.我相信自己有能力在学习上取得好成绩。
2.我认为自己有能力解决学习中遇到的问题。
3.和班上其他同学相比,我的学习能力是比较强的。
4.我认为我能够在课堂上及时掌握老师所讲授的内容。
5.我认为我能够学以致用。
6.和班上其他同学相比,我对所学专业的了解更广泛些。
7.我喜欢选择富有挑战性的学习任务。
8.我认为自己能够很好地理解书本上的知识及老师所讲授的内容。
9.我经常选择那些虽然难却能够从中学到知识的学习任务,哪怕需要付出更多的努力。
10.即使我在某次考试中的成绩很不理想,我也能平静地分析自己在考试中所犯的错误。
11.不管我的学习成绩好与坏,我都从不怀疑自己的学习能力。
12.学习时我总喜欢通过自问自答的方式来检验自己是否己掌握了所学的内容。
13.当我思考某一问题时,我能够将前后所学的知识联系起来思考。
14.我经常发现自己虽然在阅读书本却不知道它讲的是什么意思。
15.阅读书本时我能够将所阅读的内容与自己已掌握的知识联系起来进行思考。
16.我发现自己上课时总是开小差以致于不能认真听讲。
17.我常常不能准确地归纳出所阅读内容的主要意思。
18.我总是在书本或笔记本上划出重点部分以帮助学习。
19.当我为考试而复习时,我能够将前后所学的知识融会贯通起来进行复习。
20.课堂上作笔记时我总试图记下老师的每一句话,而不管它是否有意义。
21.做作业时我总力求回忆起老师在课堂上所讲的内容,以便把作业做好。
22.即使老师没有要求,我也会自觉地做书本上每一章节后面的习题来检验自己对知识的掌握情况。

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A.Self-Efficacy
2.Compared with other students in this class I expect to do well.
7.I'm certain I can understand the ideas taught in this course.
10.I expect to do very well in this class.
11.Compared with others in this class, I think I'm a good student.
13.I am sure I can do an excellent job on the problems and tasks assigned for this class.
15.1 think I will receive a good grade in this class.
20.My study skills are excellent compared with others in this class.
22.Compared with other students in this class I think I know a great deal about the subject.
23.I know that I will be able to learn the material for this class.

B.Intrinsic Value
1.I prefer class work that is challenging so I can learn new things.
5.It is important for me to learn what is being taught in this class.
6.I like what I am learning in this class.
9.I think I will be able to use what I learn in this class in other classes.
12.I often choose paper topics I will learn something from even if they require more work.
17.Even when I do poorly on a test I try to learn from my mistakes.
18.I think that what I am learning in this class is useful for me to know.
21.I think that what we are learning in this class is interesting.
25.Understanding this subject is important to me.

C.Test Anxiety
3.I am so nervous during a test that I cannot remember facts I have learned.
14.I have an uneasy, upset feeling when I take a test.
24.I worry a great deal about tests.
27.When I take a test I think about how poorly I am doing.

D.Cognitive Strategy Use
30.When I study for a test, I try to put together the information from class and from the book.
31.When I do homework, I try to remember what the teacher said in class so I can answer the questions correctly.
33.It is hard for me to decide what the main ideas are in what read.(*R)
35.When I study I put important ideas into my own words.
36.I always try to understand what the teacher is saying even if it doesn't make sense.
38.When I study for a test I try to remember as many facts as I can.
39.When studying, I copy my notes over to help me remember material.
42.When I study for a test I practice saying the important facts over and over to myself.
44.I use what I have learned from old homework assignments and the textbook to do new assignments.
47.When I am studying a topic, I try to make everything fit together.
53.When I read material for this class, I say the words over and over to myself to help me remember.
54.I outline the chapters in my book to help me study.
56.When reading I try to connect the things I am reading about with what I already know.

E.Self-Regulation
32.I ask myself questions to make sure I know the material I have been studying.
34.When work is hard I either give up or study only the easy parts.(*R)
40.I work on practice exercises and answer end of chapter questions even when I don't have to.
41.Even when study materials are dull and uninteresting, I keep working until I finish.
43.Before I begin studying I think about the things I will need to do to learn.
45.I often find that I have been reading for class but don't know what it is all about.(*R)
46.I find that when the teacher is talking I think of other things and don't really listen to what is being said.(*R)
52.When I'm reading I stop once in a while and go over what I have read.
55.1 work hard to get a good grade even when I don't like a class.
Items marked (*R) were reflected before scale construction.

参考文献:
梁宇颂. 大学生成就目标、归因方式与学业自我效能感的研究[D]. 华中师范大学, 2000.
朱亚琪. 体育教育专业本科生学业自我效能感,学习投入与学业成就的关系研究[D]. 河南大学.
Pintrich P R , Groot E . Motivational and Self-Regulated Learning Components of Classroom Academic Performance[J]. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1990, 82(1):33-40.